Physicochemical Properties, Total Concentration, Geochemical Fractions, and Health Risks of Trace Metals in Oil-Bearing Soils of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Article | Published Dec, 2022

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The physicochemical properties, total metal, metal fractions, and related human health problems of metals in oil-bearing soils of Akwa Ibom State were appraised using standard procedures. The study aimed at assessing the effects of crude oil and related activities on the properties of soil including metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and V), their fractions and associated health problems. Results showed that, levels of parameters were higher in the soils examined than in the control. The entire metals examined, apart from Cd, were within their acceptable limits however; higher than the limits for agricultural soils. Cd and Cr existed mainly in the readily available fraction, while Ni, Pb, and V occurred mainly in the reducible fraction in the studied soils. Conversely, these metals, except Cd, occurred principally in the inert fraction in the control. V/Ni ratio confirmed the soils as oil-forming continents and of organic matter origin. The natural factor, crude oil, and oil-related activities were major sources of soil contaminants. Anthropogenic proportions of metals were more in the soils investigated than in the background soil. The locations were contaminated with metals. Daily intake rates of metals were within their recommended doses except for Pb. The pollution status of the oil-bearing soils and the related human health risks have been revealed.